Sunday, December 18, 2016

General Ngô Quang Trưởng - QLVNCH



Lieutenant General Ngô Quang Trưởng in the 1970s.
 
           December 13th marked the birthday of one of the most well known commanders in the Republic of Vietnam Armed Forces, Lieutenant General Ngô Quang Trưởng. Trưởng was born in  Kiến Hòa province in 1929. He entered the military during the State of Vietnam period, attending the Thủ Đức Academy. He received his commission in 1954, and entered the airborne. One of his first citations for merit was awarded to him for bravery during the Battle of Saigon in 1955 against the Bình Xuyên.
 
Trưởng as a major during his early years with the airborne, 1960s.
 
         In subsequent years, Trưởng continued to be promoted for military achievement and his capabilities as a commander. He served with the airborne through the mid-1960s with distinction, pariticipating in major engagements throughout. After twelve years, he was transfered out of the airborne to take over command of the republic's 1st Infantry Division. He later went on the be a corps commander and one of the leading figures of the armed forces.
 
Brigadier General Trưởng with the 1st Infantry Division, 1960s.
 
Lieutenant General Trưởng with marines awaiting air transport in Tan My
during the 1972 campaign, June 29, 1972.
 
        General Trưởng was regarded by many of his contemporaries as one of the most capable commanders in Southeast Asia. He played a central role in the 1972 victory against the Communist invasion. He served the republic through 1975. He later lived in Virginia in the United States where he authored several texts documenting his views on the war. General Trưởng passed away in 2007. In this post, RVNHS would like to reflect on the life of General Trưởng and his role in the republic on the occasion of what would have been his 87th birthday.
 
Funeral of Lieutenant General Ngô Quang Trưởng in 2007.
 

Monday, December 12, 2016

VNAF 1st Helcopter Squadron - KQVNCH



A rare photo of a Vietnamese Air Force H-19 Helicopter during an operation in the early years.
 
          The helicopter is undoubtedly one of the most iconic images of the conflicts in Southeast Asia. The Vietnamese Air Force (VNAF) was heavily involved with the helicopter war, and at its height included over twenty helicopter squadrons. The birth of the VNAF's helicopter squadrons coincided with the founding of the Republic of Vietnam. The 1st Helicopter Squadron of the Vietnamese Air Force was established at Tân Sơn Nhứt in April of 1956.
 
An H-19 Helicopter of the Vietnamese Air Force.
 
       The squadron initially did not have any aircraft. Helicopters had been used in Vietnam during the State of Vietnam period, but by 1956, those that were left were in need of repair and were fastly becoming outdated as innovations in helicopter designs boomed worldwide. The first new helicopter received by the 1st Helicopter Squadron was the updated Sikorsky H-19 Chickasaw. These helicopters would be the main operational helicopters of the squadron in its very early years. The men of the 1st Helicopter Squadron were the pioneers for the later helicopter airmen and squadrons of the VNAF. In 1963, the squadron was redesignated the 211th Squadron, and would continue to serve the republic through 1975.

Saturday, December 3, 2016

Republic of Vietnam 18th Infantry Divison Certificate - Australian Army - 1 ATF



Republic of Vietnam 18th Infantry Divison - 1st Australian Task Force ( 1 ATF) weapons training certificate to Danh Soc of B Company of the 5th Cavalry Regiment, signed by 1 ATF commander, General Stuart Paul Weir, March 1970, RVNHS Archive.
 
              Australia began sending official military advisors to the Republic of Vietnam in 1962. As the military mission of Australia expanded, a central base of operations was established in Phuoc Tuy Province. One feature of the geography in the area selected for the Australian base were the remnants of an extinct volcano, which consisted of a partial crater. The Australians came to refer to this location as "Horseshoe Hill" due to its shape.
 
Australian instructor and Republic of Vietnam 18th Division soldiers,
Horseshoe Hill, Phuoc Tuy Province, 1969.
 
             Horeshoe Hill and the surrounding areas served as operation and training centers for Australian soldiers and their advisors to the military of the Republic of Vietnam. The majority of Republic of Vietnam servicemen who received training from the Australian Army did so in these areas of Phuoc Tuy Province. The Republic of Vietnam's 18th Infantry Division was trained more by Australian advisors than any other division in the Vietnamese military.
 
Soldiers of the Republic of Vietnam 18th Infantry Divison after finishing training at
Horseshoe Hill, Phuoc Tuy Province, 1970.
 
Australian instructor and Republic of Vietnam 18th Division soldiers,
Horseshoe Hill, Phuoc Tuy Province, September 1969.
 
            The training courses taught by Australian army instructors at Phuoc Tuy ranged from standard small arms courses to patrol and infiltration tactics as well as larger size unit operations. Training was conducted nearly year-round with most courses lasting for a few weeks. In later years, the 18th Infantry Division would become immortalized at the 1975 Battle of Xuan Loc when the division held out against the odds to delay the enemy.
 
General Stuart Paul Weir (left) at Phuoc Tuy, signator of the posted training certificate,
February 11, 1969.
 
            The document shown in this post is a certifcate issued to a Republic of Vietnam servicemen in the 5th Cavalry Regiment for completing a four-week training course in weapons and tactics at Horseshoe Hill in Phuoc Tuy. The document bears the insignia of the 18th Infantry Divison and the 1st Australian Task Force, which oversaw the training. It is signed by the Australian Task Force commander, General Stuart Paul Weir, and dates to March of 1970. In this post, RVNHS would like to reflect on the history of the 18th Infantry Division and of the Australian military instructors who helped to shape the division in support of the cause of the Republic of Vietnam.
 
A tank of the Republic of Vietnam 5th Cavalry Regiment in action near Bien Hoa,
February 1969.
 
      

Friday, October 14, 2016

Vietnamese Marine Khakis - TQLC



Republic of Vietnam Marine khaki shirt, 1964. RVNHS Archive.
 
         Like other branches of the Republic of Vietnam Armed Forces, Vietnamese marines often wore khaki uniforms in the 1950s through mid-1960s. Khaki uniforms were used by all branches throughout the history of the republic, but were much more frequently worn in the earlier years. This shirt is dated 1964, and bears the sleeve insignia for the marine brigade, which features a dark background. In later years when the marine division was established, the background of the insignia was changed to green. The shirt also has shoulder ranks for a marine NCO, and a fourragere.
 
A Vietnamese marine poses for a portrait with his father in early khaki uniform. Note the fourragere, marine brigade patch, and shoulder ranks. RVNHS Archive.
 
Marine officer Le Hang Minh in khaki uniform with fourragere and insignia. RVNHS Archive.
 
 

Friday, October 7, 2016

Republic of Vietnam Month in California - October 2016 - VNCH




Text of legislation in the California State Senate.
 
       October 2016 marks the 60th anniversary of the adoption of the first democratic constitution of the Republic of Vietnam. Legislation to declare October 2016 as the official "Republic of Vietnam Month" in the State of California was recently passed. This month honors Republic of Vietnam veterans and government personnel who were imprisoned in 1975, and gives official recognition from the State of California to the sacrifices of these men and women and the contribution of Vietnamese Americans in California. The cities of Westminster, Garden Grove, and Santa Ana, California, (which comprise the bulk of Little Saigon in Orange County) also recognize October 26th each year as "Republic of Vietnam Day." RVNHS would like to share the details of this month's measure as a means of appreciation for the men and women of the Republic of Vietnam.
 
Saigon, October 26, 1956, National Day in the Republic of Vietnam.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Sunday, September 11, 2016

Republic of Vietnam Naval Ratings - HQVNCH



Republic of Vietnam naval personnel,
note ratings worn on the left sleeves on some of the sailors, 1960s-70s.
 
      As with many navies around the world, sailors of the Republic of Vietnam were given specific ratings to denote their areas of specialization and training. These ratings were worn by enlisted ranks on the left sleeve. The ratings ranged from such fields as gunnery and torpedo specializations to sonar and medical designations. Photographic evidence from the period shows that although sailors may have particular ratings at a given time, the actual rating insignia was not always worn.
 
Examples of three ratings as they appear on Republic of Vietnam sailor jumpers.
 Left: a clerk, 3rd class. Center: an engineer, 2nd class. Right: an engineer 3rd class.
1960s-70s, RVNHS Archive.
 
      The ratings would appear on the upper left sleeve, and for petty officers would be accompanied by chevrons denoting the class of the rating, i.e. one stripe for third, two for second, and three for first class. Ratings appeared in black or blue colors. It is suggested the black denoted land based assignments while the blue was for those serving on vessels. Ratings could be worn not only on the white jumpers worn by sailors, but other fatigue uniforms as well.
 
Chart showing some (but not all) of the ratings in use by the Republic of Vietnam Navy, 1969, RVNHS Archive.
 
Republic of Vietnam sailor jumper with rating for an engineer, first class. 1960s-70s,
RVNHS Archive.
 
 
 

Sunday, August 28, 2016

Republic of Vietnam Museum Fundraiser Dinner - November 3, 2016



 
          The Museum of History of the Republic of Vietnam Armed Forces will be hosting a fundraising dinner on November 3, 2016, at Paracel Seafood in Westminster, California. RVNHS is affiliated with the museum, and we would like to encourage everyone to attend and show support for the museum and the rich history of the Republic of Vietnam. The museum recently opened this spring, and stands as a unique one-of-a-kind space for studying and preserving the legacy of the Republic of Vietnam. It is the only museum like it in the world, and is located right in the heart of the largest Vietnamese diaspora - Little Saigon in Orange County, California. The museum exists entirely on private donations, and is run by volunteers who donate from their own pockets, time, and effort to build and manage the museum.
 
       Proceeds from the fundraiser go towards the expansion of the museum into a much larger adjacent venue, and with your support this can become a reality. Please see the poster shown in this post for details on how to purchase tickets. Regular and VIP seats and tables are available. Reservations can be made in Vietnamese or English at the numbers provided. With your help the museum can continue its mission of honoring Republic of Vietnam veterans and their families, preserving history, and educating future generations.

Wednesday, August 17, 2016

44th Anniversary of the Second Battle of Quảng Trị 1972-2016



Republic of Vietnam Marines raise the flag over the Quảng Trị citadel, 1972.
 
            Forty-four years ago this summer, soldiers of the Republic of Vietnam were gripped in the middle of an eighty-one day battle to retake Quảng Trị province. The area was overrun by enemy forces during the Spring (or “Easter”) Offensive of 1972. However, the enemy offensive fell short of its projected aims, and the Republic of Vietnam was able to organize a successful counter-offensive. The battle was in many ways a test for the Republic of Vietnam Armed Forces, coming after the withdrawal of the majority of United States military units as part of the “Vietnamization” of the war.

Map showing the location of Quảng Trị province and city on the northernmost border of the Republic of Vietnam along the Demilitarized Zone (DMZ).
 
General Ngô Quang Trưởng who commanded Republic of Vietnam forces during the
Second Battle of Quảng Trị .
 
             General Ngô Quang Trưởng led the Republic of Vietnam forces in the battle, which principally consisted of marines and airborne troops. The raising of the Republic of Vietnam flag over the Quảng Trị Citadel was the subject of the most iconic photographs of the battle. Nearly all enemy units involved in the battle were destroyed. The Republic of Vietnam passed this major battlefield test, and proved its effectiveness to launch large scale operations when properly supplied.

Republic of Vietnam troops during the Second Battle of Quảng Trị, 1972.
 
 
 

Sunday, July 31, 2016

Republic of Vietnam Civil Development and Welfare Posters - 1960s-70s - VNCH



Republic of Vietnam Community Defense and Local Development Plan poster, 1971, Museum of History of the Republic of Vietnam Armed Forces.
 
              A group of five original posters pertaining to civil development and welfare programs organized by the Republic of Vietnam were recently donated to The Museum of History of the Republic of Vietnam Armed Forces in Westminster, California. RVNHS is affiliated with the museum, and in this post we would like to share some information on these recently donated pieces. Each of the posters bears English text, which denotes them as having been used for raising international awareness. The following is an overview of the programs these posters represented.
 
Republic of Vietnam Veterans and War Widows Assistance Programs poster, 1970s, Museum of History of the Republic of Vietnam Armed Forces.
 
Republic of Vietnam Veterans medal, 1967-1975, RVNHS Archive.
 
            The Republic of Vietnam Veterans and War Widows Assistance Programs were a collection of different agencies and charities dedicated to the welfare of former soldiers and the widows and orphans of the fallen. Many of the organizations that aided these individuals were non-governmental bodies, such as religious groups or Red Cross societies, but the Republic of Vietnam military also provided aid in addition to serving as the conduit for that delivered from outside organizations. On September 1, 1967, a medal was comissioned in two classes to be awarded to those individuals who undertook exceptional effort to provide aid to veterans and the families of fallen servicemen and women. The emblem of the medal - a helmet with anchor, wings, crossed rifle and shovel, and laurels - became the symbol for the assistance programs.
 
Republic of Vietnam People's Self Defense Force poster, 1970s,
Museum of History of the Republic of Vietnam Armed Forces.
 
video
Video clip of Republic of Vietnam People's Self Defense Force female personnel receiving firearms training, August 10, 1968, Associated Press.
 
            The People's Self Defense Force (Nhân dân Tự Vệ) or NDTV was established in June of 1968. The force was created as a means to arm civilians for self defense against enemy attacks in the wake of the Tet Offensive. People's Self Defense Force units were created throughout the Republic of Vietnam in both rural villages and large cities. The members of the these groups comprised those who were of age, but not currently in military service. A large number of women served in the force as armed combatants alongside male counterparts.
 
Chiêu Hồi Program poster, 1970s,
Museum of History of the Republic of Vietnam Armed Forces.
 
A Chiêu Hồi center, 1960s.

                  The Chiêu Hồi Program was a campaign started by The Republic of Vietnam to encourage defections from Communist operatives to the side of the republic. It began on a small scale in the early years of the republic, but became a major program by the late 1960s. It was staffed by Republic of Vietnam military personnel assigned to the program, as well as civilian staff and volunteers. The campaign consisted of leaflets, posters, and other material encouraging defection being distributed in areas of enemy activity. Those enemy personnel who took up the offer were then taken to centers where they were gradually integrated into the republic. Many defectors chose to serve in the ranks of the military of The Republic of Vietnam while others took on roles of intelligence operatives for the republic, or returned to civilian life. In total, upwards of 100,000 enemy personnel defected to the republic through the program.
 
Land to the Tiller Program poster, 1970s,
Museum of History of the Republic of Vietnam Armed Forces.
 
        The "Land to the Tiller" campaign was a land reform program instituted by Republic of Vietnam President Nguyễn Văn Thiệu on Farmer's Day, March 26, 1970. The program aimed to allow larger numbers of rural agricultural workers to own their own land. Under the program, individual land ownership (in most instances) was limited to no more than fifteen hectares. Large landowners who relinquished ownership of tracks of land were compensated, and the new parcel owners were given assistance for developing farms. The primary goal of the program was two-fold. It was hoped to both raise the quality of life for landless agricultural workers and lead to greater agricultural output (many of the lands given to the farmers were idle without being used for agricultural work, thus the name of the program "land to the tiller.") With the end of the republic in 1975, the lands given to the agricultural workers were nearly all confiscated by the Communist authorities.
 
 

Sunday, July 17, 2016

Republic of Vietnam 2nd Infantry Division 1969 History Book - Sư đoàn 2 Bộ binh QLVNCH



Republic of Vietnam 2nd Infantry Division History Book, printed by
the Republic of Vietnam Armed Forces, Saigon, February 1, 1969, RVNHS Archive.
 
         A recent acquisition to the archive, this 1969 dated history of the 2nd Infantry Division was published by the Republic of Vietnam Armed Forces in Saigon. The text provides a detailed early history of the division and its units. It also offers a contemporary late 1960s insight into the daily activities and challenges of not only the 2nd Infantry Division, but many other Republic of Vietnam military units as well. The book includes both Vietnamese and English text.
 
Opening pages of Republic of Vietnam 2nd Infantry Division History Book, printed by
the Republic of Vietnam Armed Forces, Saigon, February 1, 1969, RVNHS Archive.
 
           The division was originally formed on February 1, 1955, at My Tho. It was first designed the 32nd Infantry Division. Other texts note the name change to the 2nd Infantry Division as taking place in November of 1956, but in this text the date is given as January 1, 1959, which according to veterans is the correct date. It also coincides with this book being published on the tenth anniverasy of the division's designation as the second. The division's operational areas changed at times, but in  1969 the division was responsible for the defense of Quang Tin and Quang Ngai provinces along the coast. At the time of the text's publication, the division included the 4th, 5th, and 6th Infantry Regiments.
 
Vietnamese and English language pages for the history of the 2nd Infantry Division,
Republic of Vietnam 2nd Infantry Division History Book,
printed by the Republic of Vietnam Armed Forces, Saigon, February 1, 1969, RVNHS Archive.
 
          The book includes overviews of the division's activities ranging from combat operations to aid for the civilian population. Specific details of some of the psychological warfare operations from the previous year (1968) are included, which show the great extent to which these activities played a prominent role in the division's life. From January to November of  1968, alone, the division distributed 112,300,000 leaflets, 689,850 magazines and newspapers, and 76, 298 medical kits to the civilian population. Additionally, 521 movies and entertainment shows were offered to soldiers and civilians on behalf of the division.
 
Photo of one of the entertainment show's presented by the division,
Republic of Vietnam 2nd Infantry Division History Book, printed by
the Republic of Vietnam Armed Forces, Saigon, February 1, 1969, RVNHS Archive.
 
Medical aid provided by nurses and Women's Army Corps members attached to the 2nd Infantry Division, Republic of Vietnam 2nd Infantry Division History Book, printed by
the Republic of Vietnam Armed Forces, Saigon, February 1, 1969, RVNHS Archive.
 
            The period after the 1969 publication of this text continued to see the division engage in ongoing combat and civil operations through 1975. This primary text offers a rare glimpse into the early history of the division and its status in the late 1960s, after having been operational for fourteen years. In this post, RVNHS would like to share some of the information from this book in honor of the men and women who served in the Republic of Vietnam's 2nd Infantry Division.
 
Displays of enemy weapons captured by the 2nd Infantry Division,
Republic of Vietnam 2nd Infantry Division History Book, printed by
the Republic of Vietnam Armed Forces, Saigon, February 1, 1969, RVNHS Archive.
 
President Nguyen Van Thieu and General Nguyen Van Toan (commander of the 2nd Infantry Division at the time of the book's publication) during a divisional award ceremony
(note the divisional citations being placed on the division's flag),
Republic of Vietnam 2nd Infantry Division History Book, printed by
the Republic of Vietnam Armed Forces, Saigon, February 1, 1969, RVNHS Archive.
  

Wednesday, June 29, 2016

Early Republic of Vietnam Field Jacket - QLVNCH 1955



Vietnamese made version of a French Model 1947 field jacket, 1950s, RVNHS Archive.
 
            When the Republic of Vietnam was founded in 1955, its armed forces were outfitted with the uniforms and equipment of its predecessor, the State of Vietnam. The State of Vietnam utilized military accoutrements from a variety of nations around the world, but France was by far the greatest supplier. Troops of the Vietnamese National Army (the predecessor of the Armed Forces of the Republic of Vietnam - South Vietnam) were issued uniforms that were both manufactured in France as well as locally in Vietnam.
 
Early Republic of Vietnam officer in French Model 1947 field jacket
- note the rank insignia on the epaulettes, 1956, RVNHS Archive.
 
         The jacket shown in this post is a Vietnamese made version of a French Model 1947 field jacket. The 1947 field jacket was one of the principal pieces of field wear worn by soldiers of both the State of Vietnam, and those serving in the early years of the Republic of Vietnam. Variants of two or four pockets existed. As veterans interviewed by RVNHS recall, both variants - even the four pocket type - were often worn tucked into the trousers. Throughout the early 1950s, Vietnamese forces saw a rapid expansion as efforts were made to establish a viable armed force to defend the up-and-coming indepedent state. This expansion, coupled with the general logistic difficulties of receiving enough uniform supplies from overseas, inevitably meant that military garments would need to be produced locally in Vietnam on a scale not seen previously. It was through these newly enlarged manufacturing facilities that the supply chains for the later Republic of Vietnam military quartermaster were established.
 
 
video
A July 1955 newsreel segment showing fighting
between the "new" army under Ngo Dinh Diem
and the armed groups of the Hoa Hao religious sect.
Images of the government soldiers show French Model 1947 style field jackets in use.
 
           Photographs and film footage from the early months and years of the Republic of Vietnam show jackets of this type in use by soldiers throughout all branches of the armed forces.
 
A 1955 photo showing soldiers at the time of the transition of the State of Vietnam to the Republic of Vietnam wearing French Model 1947 style field jackets, 1955, RVNHS Archive.
 
 
 


Monday, June 20, 2016

Republic of Vietnam Armed Forces Day Exhibit - June 18-19, 2016 - Museum of History of the Republic of Vietnam Armed Forces



A selection of dress uniforms and display cases as part of the RVNHS Archive contribution at the Republic of Vietnam Armed Forces Day exhibit at the Museum of History of the Republic of Vietnam Armed Forces, Westminster, California. June 18-19th, 2016.

               On June 18th and 19th, 2016, RVNHS participated in a commemoration event for the Republic of Vietnam Armed Forces Day (June 19th) at the newly created Museum of History of the Republic of Vietnam Armed Forces in Westminster, California. This year, June 19th also fell on father's day, which made it an even more excellent opportunity for Republic of Vietnam veterans to come out with their families to remember, educate, and celebrate the rich history of the Republic of Vietnam.

Field and daily service uniforms with military insignia displays as part of the RVNHS Archive contribution at the Republic of Vietnam Armed Forces Day exhibit at the Museum of History of the Republic of Vietnam Armed Forces, Westminster, California. June 18-19th, 2016.
 
A display case showing some personal items that would have been utilized in daily life by Republic of Vietnam soldiers. Part of the RVNHS Archive contribution at the Republic of Vietnam Armed Forces Day exhibit at the Museum of History of the Republic of Vietnam Armed Forces, Westminster, California. June 18-19th, 2016.

              Items from the RVNHS Archive were contributed to the display. Included in this post are some photos of these items from the show. Along with the displays from RVNHS, other displays included detailed scale models of Republic of Vietnam naval vessels, aircraft, and vehicles - including several excellent dioramas. Educational displays for the 1974 Battle of the Paracel Islands, and a variety of other exhibits were offered.

A veteran Republic of Vietnam airborne officer who attended the Republic of Vietnam Armed Forces Day exhibit at the Museum of History of the Republic of Vietnam Armed Forces, Westminster, California. June 18-19th, 2016.
 
A veteran Republic of Vietnam officer of the 1st Battalion, 31st Infantry Regiment (23rd Infantry Division) with insignia from his former unit. Part of the RVNHS Archive contribution at the Republic of Vietnam Armed Forces Day exhibit at the Museum of History of the Republic of Vietnam Armed Forces, Westminster, California. June 18-19th, 2016.
 
          The best element of the show was being able to interact with veterans and their families, and share items from the RVNHS Archive with others in an effort to promote interest in the history of the republic, and help pass on the legacy of the men and women whose lives were forever intertwined with the Republic of Vietnam to future generations.

9th Airborne Battalion Company Guidon as part of the RVNHS Archive contribution at the Republic of Vietnam Armed Forces Day exhibit at the Museum of History of the Republic of Vietnam Armed Forces, Westminster, California. June 18-19th, 2016.
 
A selection of decorations and insignia, including grades of the National Order of Vietnam and original manufacturer ephemera as part of the RVNHS Archive contribution at the Republic of Vietnam Armed Forces Day exhibit at the Museum of History of the Republic of Vietnam Armed Forces, Westminster, California. June 18-19th, 2016.

          RVNHS will continue to maintain an area with a rotating exhibit of items from the archive at the museum during its normal operating hours. More information on the details of these displays will be offered in future postings. We would like to encourage everyone to visit and support the museum. The location offers a unique opportunity to witness and learn about a variety of aspects of the history of the Republic of Vietnam Armed Forces right in the heart of the largest community of the Vietnamese diaspora.

Early 23rd Infantry Division flag as part of the RVNHS Archive contribution at the Republic of Vietnam Armed Forces Day exhibit at the Museum of History of the Republic of Vietnam Armed Forces, Westminster, California. June 18-19th, 2016.
 
Naval uniforms, cadet, and other items as part of the RVNHS Archive contribution at the Republic of Vietnam Armed Forces Day exhibit at the Museum of History of the Republic of Vietnam Armed Forces, Westminster, California. June 18-19th, 2016.
 
Insignia, photos, and other material from military academies as part of the RVNHS Archive contribution at the Republic of Vietnam Armed Forces Day exhibit at the Museum of History of the Republic of Vietnam Armed Forces, Westminster, California. June 18-19th, 2016.
 
An armor officer uniform, berets, ranger insignia, and other items as part of the RVNHS Archive contribution at the Republic of Vietnam Armed Forces Day exhibit at the Museum of History of the Republic of Vietnam Armed Forces, Westminster, California.
June 18-19th, 2016.
 
Part of the 1974 Battle of Paracel Islands display at the Republic of Vietnam Armed Forces Day exhbit at the Museum of History of the Republic of Vietnam Armed Forces, Westminster, California. June 18-19th, 2016. The show featured many other excellent displays, including detailed scale models of naval vessels, aircraft, and vehicles
used by the military of the Republic of Vietnam.